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Douglas Walton, Distinguished Research Fellow



Douglas Walton is a Canadian researcher, well known for his many widely published books and papers on argumentation and artificial intelligence. He is Distinguished Research Fellow of the Centre for Research in Reasoning, Argumentation and Rhetoric (CRRAR) at the University of Windsor, Canada. He is the author of +50 books in the areas of argumentation, logic, artificial intelligence and evidential reasoning in law, and +320 papers in refereed scholarly journals. His most recent books include Burden of Proof, Presumption and Argumentation (Cambridge University Press, 2014), Methods of Argumentation (Cambridge University Press, 2013) and Argumentation Schemes (with C. Reed and F. Macagno, Cambridge University Press, 2008). Walton’s work has been used to better prepare legal arguments and to help develop artificial intelligence. He is a member of the editorial board of such journals as Argument and Computation, Informal Logic, Artificial Intelligence and Law, and Philosophy and Rhetoric. His books have been translated worldwide and he attracts students from many countries to study with him. Currently (2012-2017) he holds a Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada Insight Grant 435-2012-0104 on computational models of argumentation. You can find pdf preprints of many of his papers at his personal web site 

Areas of Interest

Argumentation, argumentation in AI, legal argumentation, argumentation schemes, dialogue models of argumentation, methods of argumentation, burden of proof, argumentation in computational linguistics, argument construction (invention) systems

Research Interests



Eds, G. Bongiovanni, G. J. Postema, A. Rotolo, G. Sartor and D. Walton, Handbook of Legal Reasoning and Argumentation, Berlin, Springer, 2015, to appear.
Burden of Proof, Presumption and Argumentation, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2014.
F. Macagno and D. Walton, Emotive Language in Argumentation, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2014.
Methods of Argumentation, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Chapters in Books
F. Macagno and D. Walton, Argumentation Schemes and Topical Relations, in Language, Reason and Education, ed. G. Gobber and A. Rocci. Berne: Peter Lang, 2014, 185-216.
Practical Reasoning, The Wiley Encyclopedia of Management 3rd ed, 2014. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Value-based Practical Reasoning, From Knowledge Representation to Argumentation in AI, Law and Policy Making: a Festschrift in Honour of Trevor Bench-Capon on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday, ed. K. Atkinson, H. Prakken and A. Wyner. London: College Publications, 2013, 259-282.
Analogical Arguments, International Encyclopedia of Ethics, Oxford, Blackwell, 2013, 232-237.
Propaganda, International Encyclopedia of Ethics, Oxford, Blackwell, 2013, 4155-4159.
F. Macagno and D. Walton, Implicatures as Forms of Argument, in Perspectives on Pragmatics and Philosophy. Edited by Capone, A., Lo Piparo, F., Carapezza, M., Springer, 2013, 203-225.
Conductive Arguments in Ethical Deliberation, Conductive Argument: An Overlooked Type of Defeasible Reasoning’, ed. J.A. Blair & R.H. Johnson. London: College Publications, 2011, 191-209.
E. C. W. Krabbe and D. Walton, Formal Dialectical Systems and their Uses in the Study of Argumentation, Keeping in Touch with Pragma-Dialectics, ed. Eveline Feteris, Bart Garssen, and Francisca Snoeck Henkemans, Amsterdam, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2011, 245-263.
An Argumentation Model of Deliberative Decision-Making, Technologies for Supporting Reasoning Communities and Collaborative Decision Making: Cooperative Approaches’, ed. John Yearwood and Andrew Stranieri, Hershey, Pa., IGI Global, 2011, 1-17.
Articles in Refereed Journals
D. Walton, C. W. Tindale and T. F. Gordon, Applying Recent Argumentation Methods to Some Ancient Examples of Plausible Reasoning, Argumentation, 28, 1, 2014, 85-119.
Baseballs and Arguments from Fairness, Artificial Intelligence and Law, 22(4), 2014, 423-449.
F. Macagno, D. Walton and C. W. Tindale, Analogical Reasoning and Semantic Rules of Inference, Revue Internationale de Philosophie, 68(4), 2014, 419-432.
On a Razor’s Edge: Evaluating Arguments from Expert Opinion, Argument and Computation, Argument and Computation, 5(2-3), 2014, 139-159.
Speech Acts and Indirect Threats in Ad Baculum Arguments: A Reply to Budzynska and Witek, Argumentation, 28(3), 2014, 317-324.
F. Macagno and D. Walton, Classifying Patterns of Natural Arguments, accepted for publication in Philosophy and Rhetoric, Aug. 5, 2013.
An Argumentation Model of Forensic Evidence in Fine Art Attribution, AI and Society,28(4), 2013, 509-530.
D. N. Walton and H. V. Hansen, Arguments from Fairness and Misplaced Priorities in Political Argumentation, Journal of Politics and Law, 6(3), 2013, 78-94. 
Argument from Analogy in Legal Rhetoric, Artificial Intelligence and Law, 21(3), 2013, 279-302.
H. V. Hansen and D. Walton, Argument Kinds and Argument Roles in the Ontario Provincial Election, 2011, Journal of Argumentation in Context, 2(2), 2013, 226-258.
D. Walton and G. Sartor, Teleological Justification of Argumentation Schemes, Argumentation, 27(2), 2013, 111-142.
F. Macagno and D. Walton, Character Attacks as Complex Strategies of Legal Argumentation, International Journal of Law, Language & Discourse, 2(3), 2012, 59-117
Trevor Bench-Capon, Michał Araszkiewicz, Kevin Ashley, Katie Atkinson, Floris Bex, Filipe Borges, Daniele Bourcier, Paul Bourgine, Jack G. Conrad, Enrico Francesconi, Thomas F. Gordon, Guido Governatori, Jochen L. Leidner, David D. Lewis, Ronald P. Loui, L. Thorne McCarty, Henry Prakken, Frank Schilder, Erich Schweighofer, Paul Thompson, Alex Tyrrell, Bart Verheij, Douglas N. Walton and Adam Z. Wyner, A History of AI and Law in 50 papers: 25 Years of the International Conference on AI and Law, Artificial Intelligence and Law, 20(3), 2012, 215-319.
K. Atkinson, T. Bench-Capon and D. Walton, Distinctive Features of Persuasion and Deliberation Dialogues, Argument and Computation, 4(2), 2013, 105-127.
D. Walton and T. F. Gordon, The Carneades Model of Argument Invention, Pragmatics & Cognition, 20 (1), 2012, 1-31.
Using Argumentation Schemes for Argument Extraction: A Bottom-Up Method, International Journal of Cognitive Informatics and Natural Intelligence, 6(3), 2012, 33-60.
T. F. Gordon and D. Walton, A Carneades Reconstruction of Popov v Hayashi, Artificial Intelligence and Law, 20 (1), 2012, 37-56. 
Teaching Interests


MA Thesis:

  • M.A. Thesis Committee of Jeffrey Yik Fei Lau on ‘The Problem of Realism in Linguistic Ontology’ for Faculty of Graduate Studies, University of Manitoba, 1985.

External Examiner:

  • External Examiner on the Ph.D. committee of Alena Valilyeva in the Graduate Program in Communication, Information and Library Studies at Rutgers University, 2008.
  • External Examiner for the Ph.D. thesis oral defense (viva) of Katie Atkinson, Department of Computer Science, University of Liverpool, England, December 5, 2005. Title of thesis: Computational Representation of Persuasive Argument in Practical Reasoning.
  • External Examiner for ‘The Dialectic of Ambiguity’, Ph.D. thesis of Jan Albert van Laar in the Department of Analytical Philosophy at the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, June 19, 2003.
  • External Examiner (Fakulteit Opponent) for ‘Authority-Based Argumentative Strategies’, Ph.D. thesis of Taeda Jovicic in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Uppsala, Sweden, June 3, 2002.
  • External examiner for Ph.D. dissertation for Joseph Campbell, Department of Psychology, University of Manitoba, 1983, on medical ethics.